It considers all existence as eternal, and believes there is no creator god. This cosmology is the foundation of its Samsara theory, that evolved over time the mechanistic details on how the wheel of mundane existence works over the endless cycles of rebirth and redeath.
Religious or mythological cosmology
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This has led many to refer to modern times as the “golden age of cosmology”. Whatever its true nature, dark energy plays an even greater role in cosmic evolution than dark matter. Our best estimate is that dark energy accounts for a more than two-thirds of the total energy of the visible universe. Taken together, dark matter and dark energy are an enormous mystery — and a bit of an embarrassment for the scientific community.
Modern science’s rejection of the cosmological argument
The radiation, first observed in 1965 by Arno Penzias and Robert Woodrow Wilson, has a perfect thermal black-body spectrum. It has a temperature of 2.7 kelvins today and is isotropic to one part in 105. One of the goals of these efforts is to measure the basic parameters of the Lambda-CDM model with increasing accuracy, as well as to test the predictions of the Big Bang model and look for new physics.
Perhaps Webb’s greatest power is not to capture light but to scatter and measure it. In 1789, William Herschel used a handcrafted telescope to discover Enceladus, the sixth-largest of Saturn’s 146 moons. Later, he used a prism to disperse sunlight into a rainbow and, using three thermometers, found that the temperatures of each individual color — and colors beyond those visible — were different. He had discovered infrared radiation and furthered the field of spectroscopy.
The primary difference between a cosmologist and an astronomer is their research. Both cosmologists and astronomers are interested in understanding and testing theories about the way the universe works. Although they can often share work environments and collaborate on projects, their research and job duties differ. Religious cosmologies have often developed into the formal logics of metaphysical systems, such as Platonism, Neoplatonism, Gnosticism, Taoism, Kabbalah, Wuxing or the great chain of being.
We can imagine something popping into existence without a cause. The idea of a four-sided triangle is obviously self-contradictory because the idea of triangle contradicts the idea of four-sides.
And so some are beginning to wonder if dark matter exists at all. Instead, the reasoning goes, Einstein’s theory of gravity may require some tweaking. A number of alternative theories of gravity have been put forward in recent years, but all remain controversial.